The right panel shows the uptake of 131I-MIBG in the tumors at 4 days after infusion of 18mCi/kg (total activity infused = 340 mCi). Table 1 Key clinical trials of therapies for neuroblastoma targeting hNET with MIBG, GD2 ganglioside with anti-GD2 antibody, and ALK aberrations with small molecule inhibitors*. (54) and anti-tumor activity of 14G2a (55), a phase I trial of14G2a in combination with IL2 was conducted in 31neuroblastoma patients and 2 osteosarcoma, with1 complete response in osteosarcoma and 1 partial response in neuroblastoma patients (56). 3F8 is a murine IgG3 anti-GD2 antibody against GD2 developed in the 1980’s, with similar side effects and indications of anti-neuroblastoma activity as 14G2A (57). of most neuroblastoma cells. Early phase trials have confirmed the activity of 131I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of about 30%, but the technical aspects of administration of large amounts of radioactivity in young children and the limited access have hindered incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also exhibited activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small molecule inhibitor of ALK has promising pre-clinical activity for neuroblastoma, and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with L755507 neuroblastoma. Introduction Neuroblastoma, the most common extra- cranial solid tumor in children, is derived from primordial neural crest cells that ultimately inhabit the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. The clinical behavior, which ranges from spontaneous maturation to inexorable progression despite multimodal intensive therapy, is attributable to molecular differences in the tumor. The high-risk clinical prognostic factors of age greater than 18 months and advanced stage, are closely associated with unfavorable biologic risk factors, including unfavorable histopathology, tumor amplification of the oncogene, and loss of heterozygosity of 1p and 11q, or other partial chromosome deletions(1). The 5-12 months event-free survival (EFS) for high-risk neuroblastoma is usually less than 50%, including patients with metastatic neuroblastoma greater than 18 months of age, and patients with locoregional or metastatic neuroblastoma with tumor gene amplification(2). The best outcome reported until recently for high-risk neuroblastoma was achieved with intensive combination induction chemotherapy and surgery, followed by myeloablative therapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue, and then differentiation therapy with isotretinoin(3), the first tumor-targeted therapy with exhibited activity in neuroblastoma. Although there are extensive laboratory studies and some early clinical trials investigating small molecule inhibitors and antibodies targeting relevant genetic pathways implicated in neuroblastoma proliferation, such as PI3kinase, mTOR, IGF1R and many others, the current review will put into perspective two of the most successful extremely tumor-specific brokers in current use which may further improve outcome, and evaluate a third more recent addition to the armamentarium. The first is 131I-metaiodobenzylguandine (MIBG), which targets the norepinephrine transporter (expressed in 90% of neuroblastoma tumors) for cell-specific uptake, then destroys the cell with the targeted radiation (4). The second is anti-GD2 antibody, targeting GD2 ganglioside, expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma and mediates immune destruction of the cells. This antibody combined with cytokines improves survival for patients with high-risk disease (5). The third target is the gene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase and has now been implicated as an oncogenic driver in neuroblastoma. mutations occur in 8C12% of neuroblastoma at diagnosis (6, 7), and germline, mutations are responsible for the majority of familial cases (8, 9). Small molecule inhibitors with confirmed power in ALK-rearranged cancers (10) have shown promise in pre-clinical studies in neuroblastoma, with early phase clinical Mouse monoclonal to CD64.CT101 reacts with high affinity receptor for IgG (FcyRI), a 75 kDa type 1 trasmembrane glycoprotein. CD64 is expressed on monocytes and macrophages but not on lymphocytes or resting granulocytes. CD64 play a role in phagocytosis, and dependent cellular cytotoxicity ( ADCC). It also participates in cytokine and superoxide release trials underway. Other L755507 targeted approaches to neuroblastoma and other pediatric malignancies are resolved elsewhere in this issue (11C15). Targeting the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) with MIBG The observation that 90% of tumors are MIBG-avid provides the rationale for utilizing 131I-MIBG as a targeted radiopharmaceutical for high-risk neuroblastoma. MIBG is an aralkylguanidine norepinephrine analogue originally developed to visualize tissue of sympathetic neuronal origin, which has now become an essential tool for neuroblastoma staging and response (Physique 1) (16). Early clinical trials (Table 1A) in relapsed neuroblastoma showed that 131I-MIBG was effective in producing significant response rates and that the only severe acute toxicity was myelosuppression, which could be abrogated by hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) (17C21). The activity administered has varied, with set total amounts of 50 to 100 mCi given in earlier European studies regardless L755507 of patient size, while one UK study based L755507 dose on L755507 the amount needed to limit whole body radiation to 1C2 Gy. The US studies used weight-based dosing, which correlated significantly with whole body radiation received (22). The maximal practical weight-based dose in a phase I trial was established as 18 mCi/kg. This dose was then tested in a large phase II study of 164 patients, of whom 30% required hematopoietic stem.