Many diverse technologies have been used thus far for the fast, accurate, and specific detection of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, including, but not limited to, using functionalized nanostructures to improve the sensitivity of PCR-based methods, the use of aptamers functionalized with quantum dots (QDs), semiconductor-based binding assays, surface plasmon resonance-based assays, paper-based assays, piezoelectric immune sensors, and electrochemical sensors. research studies on the detection of similar infectious viruses, especially severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. family are responsible for infectious diseases among humans and animals (Perlman, 2020). Coronaviruses are enveloped, positive-sense single-strand RNA viruses that spread among humans and usually tend to cause mild respiratory disease (Kumar, 2020); currently, many human coronaviruses (HCoVs), such as HCoV-299E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-OC43, are defined as globally endemic HCoVs and the origin of mild respiratory disease (WHO, 2020a). Other members of the family such as the Betacoronavirus genus, however, have been transmitted from animals to humans and threaten human health by spreading severe respiratory diseases such as the zoonotic Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (Fadaka et al., 2020). MERS and SARS have been circulated through the human population by the MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), or SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at different periods, respectively (Fehr et al., GSK2141795 (Uprosertib, GSK795) 2017). SARS emerged as a pandemic in 2002 in Guangdong, China, leading to more than 8000 confirmed cases and 774 deaths as it spread throughout the world with an approximately 10% mortality rate (De Wit et al., 2016; WHO, 2015). Subsequent studies named the Chinese horseshoe GSK2141795 (Uprosertib, GSK795) bat as the original reservoir of hosts for SARS-CoV (Lau et al., 2005; Li et al., 2005) and indicated that the virus had been transmitted to humans through intermediate hosts being sold in the Chinese wet market for food (Guan et al., 2003). The pandemic was stopped in 2003 by applying travel restrictions and isolating individuals infected by SARS-CoV. The MERS pandemic was highlighted in the summer of 2012 with the first report of disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Zaki et al., 2012). This was followed by the second case reported in the UK which had traveled from Qatar, and then other cases were reported from healthcare centers in Jordan (Bermingham et al., 2012; Hijawi et al., 2013). The MERS-CoV spread to over 27 countries and caused close to 2500 confirmed cases reported to the WHO with more than 858 deaths, resulting in a high mortality rate of approximately 34% (WHO, 2020b). Studies suggested that GSK2141795 (Uprosertib, GSK795) the first reservoir host of MERS-CoV was dromedary camels (and heat source for the process (Jauffred et al., 2019; Kim et al., 2019). The localized thermoplasmonic heating is able to increase the temperature of hybridization, which is followed by accurate discrimination of SARS-CoV-2 gene sequences among similar sequences with a 0.22 pM detection limit in a multigene mixture. Another biosensor consisting of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibodies immobilized on the graphene sheets of FET was developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples by applying FET-based biosensing (Seo et al., 2020). The graphene-based FET biosensor was sensitive to the surrounding changes and provided optical signals correlated with these changes that had a very low background signal. The graphene-based FET biosensor discriminated GSK2141795 (Uprosertib, GSK795) SARS-CoV-2 protein from that of MERS-CoV. This highly sensitive POC biosensor was able to Rabbit polyclonal to PI3Kp85 detect SARS-CoV-2 antigen protein in a GSK2141795 (Uprosertib, GSK795) nasopharyngeal swab transport medium as well as in the cultured virus and clinical samples with a 2.42??102 copies/mL limit of detection in clinical samples for the detection of.
Posted inOxytocin Receptors